Yttrium Ychemical elementa rare-earth metal of Group 3 of the periodic table. Yttrium is a silvery white, moderately soft, ductile metal. The metal readily reacts with diluted acids —except hydrofluoric acid HFin which the insoluble protective layer of YF 3 that forms on the surface of the metal prevents further reaction.
Yttrium turnings ignite readily in air, burning white-hot. It becomes superconducting at 1. In Finnish chemist Johan Gadolin isolated yttria, a new earth or metallic oxidefrom a mineral found at Ytterby, Sweden.
Yttria, the first rare earth to be discovered, turned out to be a mixture of oxides from which, over a span of more than a century, nine elements—yttrium, scandium atomic number 21and the heavy lanthanide metals from terbium atomic number 65 to lutetium atomic number 71 —were separated. Yttrium occurs especially in the heavy rare-earth ores, of which laterite clays, gadolinite, euxeniteand xenotime are the most important. Yttrium also occurs in products of nuclear fission. Stable yttrium is the only naturally occurring isotope.
A total of 33 excluding nuclear isomers radioactive isotopes of yttrium ranging in mass from 77 to and half-life from 41 milliseconds yttrium to Commercially, yttrium is separated from the other rare earths by liquid-liquid or ion-exchange extraction, and the metal is produced by metallothermic reduction of the anhydrous fluoride with calcium. Yttrium exists in two allotropic structural forms. Yttrium and its compounds have numerous uses.
Major applications include hosts for red phosphors for fluorescent lampscolour displays, and TV screens that use cathode-ray tubes. Yttrium aluminum garnet YAG doped with other rare earths is used in lasers ; yttrium iron garnet YIG is used for microwave filters, radarscommunications, and synthetic gems ; and yttrium oxide-stabilized cubic zirconia is used in oxygen sensors, structural ceramicsthermal barrier coatings, and synthetic diamonds.
The metal is used as an alloying addition to ferrous and nonferrous alloys for improved corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance. Yttrium compounds are used in optical glasses and as catalysts. Its ionic radius is near the radii of dysprosium and holmiummaking separation from those elements difficult. Besides the white sesquioxide, yttrium forms a series of nearly white salts including the sulfatethe trichloride, and the carbonate.
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Subscribe today. Element Properties atomic number 39 atomic weight Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. The elements cerium through lutetium are called the….Yttrium oxidealso known as yttriais Y 2 O 3. It is an air-stable, white solid substance.
Y 2 O 3 is a prospective solid-state laser material. In particular, lasers with ytterbium as dopant allow the efficient operation both in continuous operation  and in pulsed regimes.
The original use of the mineral yttria and the purpose of its extraction from mineral sources was as part of the process of making gas mantles and other products for turning the flames of artificially-produced gases initially hydrogen, later coal gas, paraffin, or other products into human-visible light.
This use is almost obsolete - thorium and cerium oxides are larger components of such products these days. Yttrium oxide is used to stabilize the Zirconia in late-generation porcelain-free metal-free dental ceramics. This is a very hard ceramic used as a strong base material in some full ceramic restorations.
The full name of zirconia used in dentistry is "yttria-stabilized zirconia" or YSZ. Yttrium oxide is also used to make yttrium iron garnetswhich are very effective microwave filters. Y 2 O 3 is used to make the high temperature superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7known as "" to indicate the ratio of the metal constituents:. Yttrium oxide is an important starting point for inorganic compounds. For organometallic chemistry it is converted to YCl 3 in a reaction with concentrated hydrochloric acid and ammonium chloride.
Yttriaite- Yapproved as a new mineral species inis the natural form of yttria. As a chemical component of other minerals, the oxide yttria was first isolated in by Johan Gadolinfrom rare-earth minerals in a mine at the Swedish town of Ytterbynear Stockholm.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Yttria, diyttrium trioxide, yttrium sesquioxide. CAS Number. Interactive image. PubChem CID. Chemical formula. Solubility in water. Crystal structure. Space group. Coordination geometry. Std molar entropy S o LD Lo lowest published.
Other cations. Ching B56 23 : — Bibcode : PhRvB. Robie, B. Hemingway, and J.Related to yttria: yttrium oxide. See yttrium oxide. All rights reserved. See ytterbium-a 4 ]. Copyright, by Random House, Inc.
Mentioned in? References in periodicals archive? Zirconia nanoparticles stabilized with yttria are used to solve this problem. Although the yttria partially stabilized zirconia currently in wide use is very strong, it possesses the fragility which is characteristic of ceramics. Kuraray Develops New Flexible Zirconia. The effect of varying the yttria concentration in the iron oxide on the redox reaction behaviors was investigated.
It is used in the production of a large variety of synthetic garnets , and yttria is used to make yttrium iron garnets [Y. High pressure elastic behavior of synthetic [Mg. Other topics include defect structure and oxygen diffusivity of niobia- doped ceria, solid state electrochemistry of fluoride ionic conductive materials, atomic level simulation of oxygen diffusion in yttria stabilized zirconia, and stability and electrical conductivity of perovskite proton conductors in pressurized steam.
Ionic and mixed conducting ceramics V; proceedings. Saint-Gobain ZirPro recently launched its Zirmil. Saint-Gobain ZirPro launches Zirmil.
In the present work, an in vitro drug release of two drug loaded forms punched pellet and alginate beads of the zirconia and yttria stabilized zirconia is studied. A study of in vitro drug release from Zirconia ceramics. According to ESL, the new ScSZ ceramic exhibits improved ionic conductivity and mechanical strength, with a coefficient of thermal expansion nearly equivalent to that of yttria stabilized zirconia YSZ.
Fabricated from tungsten, rhenium or iridium, the filaments are available in straight, hairpin, "V" shape, spiral or special configurations with yttria or thoria coatings and plain ends or platinum tabs for ease of welding. Custom ribbon and wire filaments. An yttria slurry was made using an yttria flour with average particle diameter of 15 mm according to the first run in Table 1.
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Take the quiz Bee Cubed Listen to the words and spell through all three l Play the game.Yttria yttrium oxide, Y 2 O 3 is a rare-earth ceramic which exhibits both exceptional plasma resistance and an aptitude for high-temperature applications.
Yttria is often used to stabilize other ceramic compositions like zirconia. Contact a CoorsTek expert to discuss a custom manufactured Yttria solution for your application. The information provided on this chart is for general material property reference only. The customer should recognize that exact properties of materials may vary according to product configuration but close control of values of most properties can be maintained, if specified.
Nothing herein is provided, or is to be construed, as absolute engineering data or constituting a warranty or representation. Contact CoorsTek for cost-effective design, development and manufacturing assistance. Why Ceramics? Composition Y 2 O 3. View All Specialty. Plasma resistance High stability Heat resistance Various application methods. Please fill out the below form to continue with the download.
Send or Cancel. Compare 0 materials. Compare Clear All. You can compare up to 5 materials.Yttrium is a chemical element with the symbol Y and atomic number It is a silvery-metallic transition metal chemically similar to the lanthanides and has often been classified as a " rare-earth element ". The most important uses of yttrium are LEDs and phosphorsparticularly the red phosphors in television set cathode ray tube displays. Yttrium has no known biological role.
Exposure to yttrium compounds can cause lung disease in humans. The name is historical and comes from the village of Ytterbyin Sweden where, inthe famous chemist Arrhenius found a new mineral and named it ytterbite. Yttrium is a soft, silver-metallic, lustrous and highly crystalline transition metal in group 3.
As expected by periodic trendsit is less electronegative than its predecessor in the group, scandiumand less electronegative than the next member of period 5zirconium ; additionally, it is more electronegative than lanthanumbut less electronegative than lutetium due to the lanthanide contraction.
The pure element is relatively stable in air in bulk form, due to passivation of a protective oxide Y 2 O 3 film that forms on the surface. The similarities of yttrium to the lanthanides are so strong that the element has historically been grouped with them as a rare-earth element and is always found in nature together with them in rare-earth minerals.
It often also falls in the same range for reaction order,  resembling terbium and dysprosium in its chemical reactivity. One of the few notable differences between the chemistry of yttrium and that of the lanthanides is that yttrium is almost exclusively trivalentwhereas about half the lanthanides can have valences other than three; nevertheless, only for four of the fifteen lanthanides are these other valences important in aqueous solution Ce IVSm IIEu IIand Yb II.
Yttrium forms a water-insoluble fluoridehydroxideand oxalatebut its bromidechlorideiodidenitrate and sulfate are all soluble in water. Water readily reacts with yttrium and its compounds to form Y 2 O 3. Organoyttrium chemistry is the study of compounds containing carbon—yttrium bonds. A few of these are known to have yttrium in the oxidation state 0. The s-process is a slow neutron capture of lighter elements inside pulsating red giant stars. Yttrium isotopes are among the most common products of the nuclear fission of uranium in nuclear explosions and nuclear reactors.
In the context of nuclear waste management, the most important isotopes of yttrium are 91 Y and 90 Y, with half-lives of All group 3 elements have an odd atomic numberand therefore few stable isotopes. However, the lanthanide rare earths contain elements of even atomic number and many stable isotopes.
Greenwoodpp. Electron emission of isotopes with those mass numbers is simply less prevalent due to this stability, resulting in them having a higher abundance. At least 32 synthetic isotopes of yttrium have been observed, and these range in atomic mass number from 76 to Yttrium has at least 20 metastable "excited" isomers ranging in mass number from 78 to Inpart-time chemist Carl Axel Arrhenius found a heavy black rock in an old quarry near the Swedish village of Ytterby now part of the Stockholm Archipelago.
InCarl Gustaf Mosander found that samples of yttria contained three oxides: white yttrium oxide yttriayellow terbium oxide confusingly, this was called 'erbia' at the time and rose-colored erbium oxide called 'terbia' at the time.
Until the early s, the chemical symbol Yt was used for the element, after which Y came into common use.
Inyttrium barium copper oxide was found to achieve high-temperature superconductivity. Yttrium is found in most rare-earth minerals it is found in some uranium ores, but is never found in the Earth's crust as a free element.
Yttrium has no known biological role, though it is found in most, if not all, organisms and tends to concentrate in the liver, kidney, spleen, lungs, and bones of humans. Minami-Torishima Islandalso known as Marcus Island, is described as having "tremendous potential" for rare-earth elements and yttrium REYaccording to a study published in Scientific Reports. The study shows that more than 16 million tons of rare-earth elements could be "exploited in the near future.
Since yttrium is chemically so similar to the lanthanides, it occurs in the same ores rare-earth minerals and is extracted by the same refinement processes. Yttrium is concentrated in the HREE group because of its ion size, though it has a lower atomic mass. Rare-earth elements REEs come mainly from four sources: . One method for obtaining pure yttrium from the mixed oxide ores is to dissolve the oxide in sulfuric acid and fractionate it by ion exchange chromatography.
With the addition of oxalic acidthe yttrium oxalate precipitates.Yttria-stabilized zirconia YSZ is a ceramic in which the cubic crystal structure of zirconium dioxide is made stable at room temperature by an addition of yttrium oxide.
These oxides are commonly called "zirconia" Zr O 2 and "yttria" Y 2 O 3hence the name. The resulting doped zirconia materials are termed stabilized zirconias. Materials related to YSZ include calcia - magnesia - ceria - or alumina -stabilized zirconias, or partially stabilized zirconias PSZ.
Hafnia stabilized Zirconia is also known [ citation needed ]. The thermal expansion coefficients depends on the modification of zirconia as follows:. By the addition of yttria to pure zirconia e. Thereby, oxygen vacancies are generated due to charge neutrality: . For low dopant concentrations, the ionic conductivity of the stabilized zirconias increases with increasing Y 2 O 3 content. Nowadays, more complex ceramics like co-doped Zirconia e.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A ceramic with room temperature stable cubic crystal structure.
Yanagida, K. Koumoto, M. Acta Materialia. Solid State Ionics. Kristallbau der Nernst-Stifte". August Journal of Power Sources. Bibcode : JPS Journal of the American Ceramic Society. Progress in Thermal Barrier Coatings. John Wiley and Sons. Retrieved 23 October Categories : Zirconium compounds Refractory materials Electrochemistry. Hidden categories: CS1 errors: missing periodical Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata Use dmy dates from January All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from September Namespaces Article Talk.
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